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古旧字画的修复方法?

发布时间:2021-05-25 作者:大雅堂美术馆 文章来源:http://www.jndyt888.com/ 浏览量:

随着时间的流逝,古旧字画会出现自然老化、破损等现象,为再现原作的艺术风采,需进行修复。今天小编为大家分享修复字画的几种方法。
With the passage of time, the ancient calligraphy and painting will appear natural aging, damage and other phenomena, in order to reproduce the original artistic style, need to repair. Today, I'd like to share with you several ways to repair calligraphy and painting.
古旧字画修复分为4个步骤,下面逐个叙述。
The restoration of ancient calligraphy and painting is divided into four steps, which are described one by one below.
1、去污:画心因烟熏尘染,质地变黄变黑,如画面颜色稳固,可将画心放入清水内浸泡,隔时换水,即可明净。污迹较重,可用热水浸泡,或缓缓浇淋开水。画面颜色受潮返铅的,可用双氧水涂抹消除。画心生霉,有黑有红,黑霉易涂,红霉可用高锰酸钾溶液涂在霉处,稍时再涂双氧水和淡草酸水,如霉不严重,一次即可除掉。用药物去污后,务必用清水冲淋画心,免蚀纸绢。
1. Decontamination: the texture of the painting center turns yellow and black due to smoke and dust. If the color of the picture is stable, you can soak the painting center in clean water and change the water every other time to make it clear. If the stain is heavy, it can be soaked in hot water or poured slowly with boiling water. If the color of the picture is affected by damp and leads back, it can be eliminated by applying hydrogen peroxide. Black mold is easy to be coated. Red mold can be coated with potassium permanganate solution, and then coated with hydrogen peroxide and light oxalic acid. If the mold is not serious, it can be removed at one time. After decontamination with medicine, be sure to wash the painting heart with clean water, and make sure that the paper and silk are free from corrosion.
2、揭旧:揭前在画心正面用排笔蘸清水或温水刷湿,并覆盖新纸一张,反置案上待揭。古旧字画多有断裂,如在揭心之前,不附加垫纸,揭托之后,不易起案。画心局部颜色不稳定的,应稍施淡胶矾水,干后,再行闷水。有些残破糟朽的画心,当日揭不完时,应在已揭过的部位,均匀地放置些湿纸团,然后覆盖一层塑料薄膜,以防画心干裂错位。揭画心上的旧纸,一般应根据字画的薄厚、残状、颜色以及质地的具体情况制定揭旧方案。
2. Uncovering the old: before uncovering, wet the front of the painting center with a paibi dipped in clean water or warm water, and cover it with a new piece of paper, and put it on the reverse side to be uncovering. For example, before uncovering the heart, there is no additional pad paper. After uncovering the support, it is not easy to start a case. If the local color of the painting center is not stable, light glue alum water should be applied slightly, and then the water should be stuffy after drying. When some broken and decadent painting hearts cannot be completely removed on the same day, wet paper balls should be evenly placed on the uncovered parts, and then covered with a layer of plastic film to prevent the painting hearts from cracking and dislocation. To remove the old paper from the heart of a painting, a scheme should be made according to the thickness, shape, color and texture of the painting.
         名人字画回收
3、托补:已揭好的画心,如完整,可调兑稀糊,托一层比命纸命绢稍浅的旧色纸。如有残缺,可用手将画心残处边际揉出薄口,选好补纸,端正纹理补上,并在补口边际搓出薄边。使接缝处厚度适宜。补缀残缺的绢本字画,一种方法是揭毕待干,用刀将残处刮成薄口,上糊补绢,浆口干后再修刮补绢边际,使补口相合。另一种方法是托上一层与原命绢质地、丝纹相近的薄绢。正面如有残缺,可用素纸补在托绢的背面,使画心薄厚统一,干后再用刀修磨画面残缺处的边际。托旧绢画心时,要用干纸吸去正面的溢糊,以免留有浆迹,影响古旧作品的“褒光”.
3. Tuobu: the uncovering heart of the painting, such as complete, adjustable blending paste, supporting a layer of old color paper slightly lighter than life paper life silk. If there is any defect, you can use your hand to rub the edge of the heart of the painting out of the thin edge, select the filling paper, correct the texture, and rub the thin edge at the edge of the filling. Make the thickness of the joint suitable. One way to mend the incomplete silk calligraphy and painting is to peel it off and wait for it to dry, scrape it into a thin mouth with a knife, paste the mending silk on it, and then scrape the edge of the mending silk after the pulp mouth is dry to make the mending match. Another method is to put on a layer of thin silk with similar texture and texture to the original silk. If there is any defect on the front, plain paper can be used to fill the back of the supporting silk, so that the thickness of the painting center is uniform. After drying, the edge of the incomplete part of the picture can be polished with a knife. When supporting the old silk painting heart, dry paper should be used to absorb the overflow paste on the front, so as to avoid leaving slurry marks and affecting the "praise light" of ancient works
4、全色:字画经揭托,待干后,务使补纸补绢的矾性适度。否则,矾轻则透色,矾重则滞笔。全色时,应将颜色调兑得浅些,复次全就,使颜色渗进纸纹纤维,取得画面色调统一的效果。画心有缺笔的,补全时,需先审视画心气韵及用笔特点,然后轻勾轮廓,调兑颜色,进而全之,力求使补全的一笔一点、一墨一皴均与原画浑然一体。对于一些具有重要学术研究价值的经卷、书籍、契证等文物,经过洗污补托,如有残缺,不必求其复原,只把残缺处的色调全补得与通幅基本一致即可。
4. Panchromatic: after the calligraphy and painting are uncoated and dried, make sure that the alum of paper and silk is moderate. Otherwise, the light alum is transparent, and the heavy alum is stagnant. When full-color, should mix the color lighter, repeat all, make the color infiltrate into the paper grain fiber, achieve the effect of unified picture tone. If there is a lack of strokes in the heart of painting, it is necessary to first examine the charm of the heart of painting and the characteristics of the brush, then gently tick the outline, adjust the color, and then complete it, so as to make the completed strokes, ink and texture integrate with the original painting. For some cultural relics with important academic research value, such as scriptures, books, deeds and so on, if they are incomplete after washing, it is not necessary to recover them. Only the color of the incomplete part is basically the same as the width.
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