纸和搪瓷的识别是在纸和搪瓷上进行的。 life的寿命通常约为100年，而纸的寿命约为1000年。 当然，由于地下埋葬环境的不同，出土文物中的纸筐可能仍会超过千年。 例如，在金唐之前，就已经编织了单丝，直到宋代才发现了双丝的绉纹，这种绉纹比元和明朝的要细。 根据质量类别，您可以确定书画的年龄。 纸上也有时代的痕迹。 隋唐以前，纸以大麻为原料，纤维含量较高，纸质也不佳。
The identification of paper and enamel is carried out on paper and enamel. The life of life is usually about 100 years, while the life of paper is about 1000 years. Of course, due to the different underground burial environment, the paper baskets in the unearthed cultural relics may still be more than a thousand years old. For example, single silk had been woven before the Jin and Tang Dynasties, and the crepe pattern of double silk was not found until the Song Dynasty, which was thinner than that of the yuan and Ming Dynasties. According to the quality category, you can determine the age of calligraphy and painting. There are also traces of the times on the paper. Before the Sui and Tang Dynasties, hemp was used as the raw material of paper, with high fiber content and poor paper quality.
隋唐以后，树皮被用于造纸，其纸张质量比以前更好。 北宋中期以后，造纸材料多样化，并提出了论文。 多元化。 实际上，民间收藏的书画只出现在明清末期。 这是因为纸张和搪瓷本身很难保存数百年。 再加上伪造者的困惑，有人认为古代书法的相当一部分是鱼。 名人书画习得的三个主要要素：
After the Sui and Tang Dynasties, bark was used for papermaking, and its paper quality was better than before. After the middle of the Northern Song Dynasty, papermaking materials were diversified and papers were put forward. diversification. In fact, the folk collection of calligraphy and painting only appeared in the late Ming and Qing Dynasties. This is because paper and enamel itself are difficult to preserve for hundreds of years. Coupled with the confusion of forgers, some people think that a considerable part of ancient calligraphy is fish. Three main elements of celebrity calligraphy and painting acquisition:
1、 Installation identification
每个时代都有自己的特点。 例如，在元代，藏画的收藏是由一个特殊的人选择的。 大德四年间，“古代玉象牙成为轴心，桉树金碧继续被安装”。 在明代，画作在画卷中加入了铅，有些还写在了线上。 垂直轴有宽和窄的一面，有些还增加了诗歌。 清代宫廷绘画的材料和技术形式都比明代更好。
Each era has its own characteristics. For example, in the Yuan Dynasty, the collection of Tibetan paintings was selected by a special person. During the four years of Dade, "ancient jade and ivory became the axis, and Eucalyptus splendor continued to be installed". In the Ming Dynasty, lead was added to the paintings, and some were written on the line. The vertical axis has wide and narrow sides, and some have added poetry. The materials and technical forms of palace painting in the Qing Dynasty are better than those in the Ming Dynasty.
2、 Seal identification
宋代的许多歌舞作品未加盖印章，有些盖有青铜和玉印章，并且印章上印有致密的印章和水上的樱花。 封印由木头，象牙，铜，玉等制成。版画为模版和樱花代。 使用了石印。 明代的石印章很常见，雕刻方法使用“锤头式”。 清代油樱所使用的印章大多为印章形状，其字体和字体也多种多样。 油墨颜色是油性的。 绘画中衣服和生活用具的标识冠在不同的年龄通常会有所不同，并且生活用具也有所不同，可以被识别。
Many song and dance works were not sealed, some were sealed with bronze and jade seals, and the seals were printed with dense seals and cherry blossoms on the water. The seal is made of wood, ivory, copper, jade, etc. Prints are templates and Sakura generation. Lithography was used. Stone seals in the Ming Dynasty are very common, and the carving method is "hammer head type". The seals used by Youying in the Qing Dynasty are mostly in the shape of seals, and their fonts and fonts are also diverse. Ink color is oily. The identification crowns of clothes and living utensils in painting are usually different at different ages, and living utensils are also different and can be identified.
3、 Professional title appraisal
这些问题分为三类：作者的头衔，当代的问题和后代的问题。 标题是增加书画的价值。 但是，通常会出现带有错误问题的真实绘画或带有真实问题的伪造绘画，应仔细识别。 特别是，著名艺术家更容易被假书法题字吸引。
These problems fall into three categories: the title of the author, contemporary problems and future problems. The title is to increase the value of calligraphy and painting. However, there are usually real paintings with wrong problems or forged paintings with real problems, which should be carefully identified. In particular, famous artists are more likely to be attracted by fake calligraphy inscriptions.